On completion of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Describe heat and its application as energy.
  • Differentiate heat with temperature.
  • Explain specific heat capacity and heat equation.
  • Solve numerical related to specific heat capacity and heat equation.
  • Explain what temperature scales are.


Introduction to Heat

Heat is a form of energy that gives sensation of warmth. The SI unit of heat is joule. This note provides short introduction about heat and temperature scale.

Heat Equation and Specific Heat Capacity

Heat equation is Q = msdt where, S is proportionality constant and is known as specific heat capacity. This note details about heat equation and specific heat capacity along with principle of calorimetry.

Anomalous Expansion of Water

When water is heated from 0 degree Celsius to 4 degree Celsius, its volume decreases and increases only after 4 degree Celsius. This unusual behavior of water from 0 degree Celsius to 4 degree Celsius is known as anomalous expansion of water. This note has detail explanation of anomalous behavior of water when it is heated to 4 degree centigrade.


Temperature is the thermal condition of a body which determines the flow of heat from the body to another body on its contact. It is the average kinetic energy of the molecules contained in the body.